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Hazards

Learning outcomes in Module 3
By the end of the session, delegates will be able to:
.
state the different types of injuries associated with
manual handling operations and the areas of the
body affected
.
describe the basic anatomy of the spine
.
explain the difference between chronic and acute
in relation to manual handling injuries
.
describe manual handling activities which present
a high level of risk.
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HSE Statistics -Manual Handling Injuries
Finger/Thumb
Arm
Hand
/Wrist
Lower Limb
Rest of Torso
10 %
9 %
8 %
Back
Other 3 %
49 %
14 %
7 %
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Sprains and Strains
Injury to tendon/muscle ñ pulling too far.
E.g. a back injury caused by poor technique.
What is a ëStrainí? CQ
Injury to a ligament ñ being stretched too far.
E.g. a twisted ankle
What is a ëSprainí? CQ
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CQ
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.Allows movement
.Provides support and stability
.Protects internal organs
.Provides attachment of muscles
and ligaments.
What are the functions of the spine?

Anatomy of the Spine
Cervical Spine
(Neck)
Sacrum
(Tail Bone)
Thoracic Spine
(Mid Back)
Lumbar Spine
(Low Back)
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The Vertebrae
Facet Joints In Motion
Flexion
(Bending Forward)
Extension
(Bending Backward)
Vertebral Body
Disc
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Spinal Joint and Intervertebral Disc
Nerve Root
Facet Joints
Spinal Cord
Vertebra
Intervertebral Disc.
Spinal Nerves
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Spinal Joint and Intervertebral Disc
Spinal Unit showing
Intervertebral disc in
good health
Spinal Unit showing
Prolapsed Intervertebral disc.
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Acute and Chronic
Of long duration and slow progression. Illnesses
that are chronic develop slowly over time, and do
not end. Symptoms may be continual or intermittent,
but the patient usually has the condition for life.
What is ëChronicí? CQ
Sharp and of short duration. Illnesses that are acute
appear quickly and can be serious or
life-threatening. The illness ends and the patient
usually recovers fully
What is ëAcuteí? CQ
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High Risk Activities
Top heavy bending Reaching Holding a load
away from trunk.
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High-Risk Activities
Stretching upwards
Twisting
seated & stooped Poor posture.
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Guideline for maximum handling loads
Shoulder
height
Waist height
Knuckle height
Mid lower
leg height
3 Kg
7 Kg
10 Kg
3 Kg
7 Kg
Shoulder
height
Waist height
Knuckle height
Mid lower
leg height
5 Kg
10 Kg
15 Kg
5 Kg
10 Kg
20 Kg
25 Kg
10 Kg
7 Kg
13 Kg
16 Kg
7 Kg
13 Kg 10 Kg 20 Kg
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How much do you know?
A
B
D
Which part of the body is most affected by manual
handling injuries?
A. Feet
B. Fingers
C. Back
D. Shoulders
C
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ACDWhich type of injury is a twisted ankle?
A. Strain
B. Sprain
C. Fracture
D. Dislocation
How much do you know?
B1 3 42
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ACDWhich type of injury is a twisted ankle?
A. Strain
B. Sprain
C. Fracture
D. Dislocation
How much do you know?
B1 3 42
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ABCWhat is the name of the interlocking joint found in the
spine?
A. Interspinal
B. Compound
C. Disc
D. Facet
How much do you know?
D1 2 43
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Which of the following is a high-risk activity?
A. Reaching above head height
B. Carrying a load
C. Moving a load at chest height
D. Pushing a handcart
BCDAHow much do you know?
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